How Does GPS Works?

GPS is the short form of Global Positioning System. Global positioning system (GPS) is a technology that utilizes the radio waves, satellites and various types of receivers to track a specific location.

By the use of satellite signals the GPS helps one to locate any place or provide one with the distance from one place to another. The satellite signals allow the GPS receivers to locate, calculate and display the correct speed and time information to the user.

The GPS automatically pick up our current location. GPS units come in small pocket sized hand-held models like that of our mobiles, tablets, watches, palmtops and they are also designed to use in cars for searching any place and also to find certain directions. GPS also provides us with all the route directions.

GPS

GPS

The United States, Department of Defense (DOD) have first coined the technology of the global positioning system, for military application. A GPS unit works off of a network of 24satellites that orbit the earth, 24 hours a day.

These satellites are solar powered machines that are coordinated in a manner that at least 4 GPS are accessible from any one location. A clear view of the sky is necessary for a GPS unit to work properly.

GPS military device

From among a constellation of 33 available satellites, the GPS works by capturing the signals from three or more satellites. GPS receivers use the principle of Trilateration to pinpoint the location.

GPS receiver converts the location, speed and time information in to a useful visual display format. Whichever weather condition may be, GPS always works correctly. However GPS signals can be blocked by dense forest, canyon walls or space wells, as such some locations may be there where we cannot find GPS navigation.

UntitledImagine standing anywhere in the Earth with threesatellites above (say A, B and C). If we know how far we are from the Satellite A, then we are somewhere on the red circle. If we know how far we are from satellite B, then it is known that we are somewhere in the blue circle and we would do the same for satellite C. this is what is done by the GPS, although the GPS also can locate our positions if we were in the overlapping spheres.

The accuracy of the position increases by the number of satellites above us. The GPS needs an unobstructed view of the sky so it accurately gives information outdoor.

GPS Structure_0

As we learned that GPS works off of using radio waves, these radio waves are electromagnetic energy which mean that they travel at the speed of light. The GPS receiver can figure out how far the signals have to arrive.

Basic GPS measurements yield only a position, neither speeds nor direction. Most of the GPS units can automatically derive velocity and direction of movement from two or more position measurements. The recent technologies is used to overcome the drawbacks that were faced earlier when in a dense forest or under canopy wall.

Big Bang Theory- Cosmology

In the night, with clear sky, we see beautiful sky with stars shining. For centuries, human being are watching and thinking of how universe is developed into today’s wonderful universe. You can see a small portion of stars from the whole universe. In imagination too, we don’t have the the idea to measure how much big is the ‘Universe. Scientists and cosmologists are still working on the idea how much big is Universe and how was it created. Astronomer Fred Hoyle is the person who first used this word- ‘Big Bang‘. Now, Big Bang theory is a new direction to solve the ‘mystery’ of our universe.

Big bang

Big bang

To understand how universe was born, we have to start from the beginning- let’s go to 20 billion years ago. There was no stars, galaxies, planets- nothing. The external galaxies (Those which are other from our galaxy) are receding at a speed which is proportional to their distance from our galaxy. Astronomer Hubble first noticed that. he concluded that universe is expanding. Any expansion starts from a tiny particle. According to the cosmologists, big bang theory states that universe began by expanding a infinitesimal volume with very high density and temperature. Many people thought that the universe today is the result of a tremendous explsion. Before that universe was smaller than a single sand particle. Days after days, years after years, it is continuously expanding and today it seems that the size of the universe is not changing, as the expand rate is so less.

But the actual concept is big bang is not that. It refers to the ‘expansion’ of universe itself. The greatest scientists Albert Einstein, Edwin Hubble and Stephen Hawking were tried their best to solve the mystery of universe’s creation.

Expansion of universe

Expansion of universe

In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his famous theory of relativity which follows the rule of expansion in free space, after that great astronomer Sitter applied his research over it and with relativity theorem and concluded that universe may be expanding. This was the first time to state universe’s expansion theorem.

expanding-einstein-desitter

Einstein and Sitter

Though there is so many idea about the expansion of the universe, there are only three possible matters to discuss about the probability of the expansion. The fate of the universe can be determined by how faster universe expanding relative to how much matters it contains.

The three possibilities of expanding universe is:

  • Open Universe
  • Flat Universe
  • Close Universe

400px-Friedmann_universes.svg

If the universe was open universe, then it would expand forever with a good rate of expansion. If it was flat universe, universe would expand, but the rate of expansion would too slow, eventually it becomes zero with respect to time. If the third possibility occurs, universe will stop expanding and it will start to collapse.

Thou in 21st century, many new theorem says that universe is not expanding. The fate of universe may be “Big Freeze“, which states that at the maximum expansion, the universe will reach at absolute zero temperature, in this situation, (1-100 trillion years later) the gas needed for star formation will be exhausted and the total universe will collapse to its initial position.This “Heat death” scenario can be occurred to all these universe expansion model at the minimum temperature only.

How Optical Fiber Works?

Day by day technology is improving our lifestyle widely. We are very much dependable on technological item for getting more luxurious life. In everyday’s life we are totally standing on science’s help. We watch television, use telephone, internet everyday and you may hear about the term ‘fiber optics’. This is widely used in cable TV, telephone system, and in high speed broadband transmission line (Internet).

Optical fiber

Optical fiber

If you want to know how optical fiber works, then you have to go details of the construction part of it. What is inside fiber cable? How information is sent through it. Fiber optics cables are threads of  optically extremely pure glass. These cables are as thin as human hair, but it can carry terabytes of information within few seconds over long distance.  It can be considered as a light pipe, that sends digital information from one end and receiver receives information in the nick of time. As information is sent as light, that is why fiber optics cable needs that construction mechanism so that no information is absorbed or lost inside it. Fiber optics cable is made up of bundles of glass threads, called optical fiber.

Construction of Optical fiber

Construction of Optical fiber

If you look closer of one optical thread, you can see there are three parts of optical fiber.

  • Core: This is made up of thin glass which resides inside the optical fiber.
  • Cladding: It covers the core and if any light goes to this layer, it reflects back light to core again.
  • Buffer coating: This is plastic coat, that protects the internal construction from being damaged.

 Hundreds of optical cables bundles together to form a fiber cable.

Bundle of optical fiber

Bundle of optical fiber

 These total optical cables are covered by a thin cover called jacket. There are single mode and multi-mode fibers available. In single mode fiber, core is small while in multi-mode fiber, core is larger than single mode fiber.

Now you have to know how light travels through the core of the optical fiber with an extreme high speed with a lot of information. When a light is sent through the cable, if the cable is straight at the first point, there light travels straight, with no problem. But when the cable is bent at some point, light ray bounces inside the cable constantly, and reaches the cladding layer. Here a phenomena occurs, called ‘Total Internal Reflection‘.

totint2If the ray is incident on the transparent cladding surface at an angle larger than the refraction angle, it gets totally reflected back to the first medium. and again it bounces inside the core and continuing this process continuously, at a time it comes to the end point with 100% information. No information is lost during the transmission. hence the construction and working principle makes it so costly.

It has a wide use in transmission of signal and also in medical imaging, mechanical imaging, plumbing etc. In medical system, in endoscopy it is used to see the internal body of patient. In mechanical imaging, to observe the problems in engines, pipes in cars, space shuttles etc.

In future technology fiber optics will help us in other ways. In everyday life it will serve us a more better lifestyle.

 

 

 

The Mystery of Black Hole

In the world of astronomy, ‘Black Hole’ is quite mysterious topic. In CERN, an experiment was started for finding different questions related to Quantum Mechanics, Physics and space and time. In that experiment it was suggested that the collision can result a Black Hole, which will ‘swallow’ the earth within a fraction of seconds.

Still today, cosmologists do not know what is inside black hole properly. Why? The answer is inside the definition of Black hole.

Black Hole

Black Hole

A Black Hole is a mysterious object with such a powerful gravity that nothing can escape from it,not even light, which has the highest speed of 3,00,000 Km/Sec. To know it, we have to start from the death of a star. When the all fuels of a start ends, it can be a white dwarf or neutron stars or black hole depending on the mass of that star if it exceeds  Chandrasekhar limit or not. As per scientist’s explanation, most of the stars ends up with the first two, while the stars with enormous mass (12 times heavier than our Sun’s mass) ends up with black hole.

In the core of the star, there are two energies works to make it stable. One is the continuous fusion reaction, which is the fuel of the star’s light and enormous energy, another is the gravitational energy. Fusion always tries to explode the star while, the gravitational energy tries to collapse the star, a balance is kept in between the gravitational force and fusion reaction to keep the star alive, which are two opposite forces. After the death of the star, fusion reaction stops, so there is only gravitational force works on the star. Then the gravity compresses and more compresses the core. As it generates heat at some moment, it causes a huge Supernova explosion.  Only the part remains is the core which is the densest part. Again the gravity acts on the core.

This gravitational force is so high that the internal pressure is insufficient to resist the own gravity. This extreme high gravity collapses the star and at a certain moment, the gravity becomes so strong that the weight of one table spoon soil exceeds 10-100 crore tons. In this moment, the diameter is too little relatively, like  Sun squeezed into a sphere approximately the diameter of New York City. When light comes near of it, it can not escape from the ‘spider web’ of dead star’s gravity.

Black hole captured by NASA

Black hole captured by NASA

intro_28

There are two types of black holes in the universe:

  • Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes.

In Schwarzschild black hole the core doesnot rotates, but it moves.

Schwarzschild Black Hole

Schwarzschild Black Hole

  • Kerr black hole is the most common black hole ever, we have seen this type of black hole. It resides naturally at the centre of a trillions of galaxys which are rotatingly forwarding towards the black hole.When a rotating star dies, it forms.  It rotates as it is assumed that it obeys the conservation of momentum.
Kerr Black Hole

Kerr Black Hole

clues

But our Sun will never become a black hole, as it is too small and mass is too small to form a black hole. It maybe a white dwarf or a neutron star one day, approximately 500 billion years later, and think of the oldage stories of its planets..

Business Group Deals: A New Twist To An Old Way

business deals

Group buying, sometimes also referred to as collective buying, presents a unique opportunity to buy products and services in bulk with business colleagues at really incredible prices.

Business group deals online are a new twist on an age-old bargaining strategy, which applies the time-tested principals of the old retail practice to the newer practice of virtual marketing and sales online.

The Internet makes buying products and services in bulk through business group deals more versatile than it has ever been because it offers a new kind of flexibility to provide and shop new deals on a daily basis.

Group Buying Sites Are Everywhere

It has never been easier to connect to local merchants with fabulous business group deals who are seeking business from companies just like yours. Whether you are shopping for technical or electronic products, gifts or a special kind of service, there are unlimited websites where you can find great business group deals.

If you are a business owner and you are looking for new and innovative ways to market your product or service, enlisting in a group buying site will provide a fantastic starting point.

Before you do, though, you have to make sure that the site with which you enlist is reputable and effective, and you also have to be sure that your business is prepared to handle the sudden increase in business volume that is likely to occur.

Research Other Companies

Do a little research on other companies that are similar to yours, to see which of them have become involved in business group dealings, how successful it has been for them, and how the interaction has gone overall.

When you finally become involved, it is always wise to provide value-added discounts that will attract first-time customers and incentives that will encourage them to return again. Take advantage of the unique opportunity to showcase your brand and inspire your customers to refer their family member and friends to your business.

Business group deals that you offer also extend a special chance to exhibit products and services you offer beyond what your customers came looking for to begin with.

Though becoming involved in this kind of service requires a small initial investment—including free or reduced-priced samples of what you offer—the return in the end will out-measure what you have sacrificed in the beginning.

A Closer Look at How it Works

Businesses and suppliers shopping for affordable products and services subscribe to group buying sites. Suppliers publish certain deals for a specific period of time, and subscribers take advantage of the deals before they expire.

By becoming a subscriber and paying close attention to new offers, businesses can save an average of 30 to 40 per cent—and often, more—from the going market price of products and services.

Profitability

The kinds of offers made in these business group deals encourage businesses to make purchases they may have been shy to afford. Overall, it is a good practice because “a” sale is better than “no” sale, and it introduces many businesses to your product for the very first time.

If you are confident in what you sell, you should not hesitate to offer a business group deal, knowing that your customers will return again after having a test of what you offer. And from an analyst viewpoint, you could perceive that the money “given away” in discounting your product is money that would have otherwise been spent on other, less effective means of advertising.

The idea is that you are not really giving it away, but are using marketing funds in a new and innovative way.

Business group deals offer any and all types of products and services, from SEO services to office supplies and equipment, to technological goods like computers, printers and network services.

If you are looking for a new way to boost business, consider offering business group deals. And if you are shopping for your business, get out there and start looking for those deals!